Glenster's Guide to GTJ Brooklyn

Led Zeppelin Lift Offs
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Free PC Pinball, a lot of game mods, etc.
Led Zeppelin Lift Offs
Contact Me

  Led Zeppelin lift offs
  Homer Simpson: "There’s Jimmy Page, the greatest thief of American black music
who ever walked the earth."
  "I heard him called Jimmy Plaige by someone here." LikeToSmoke
  The issue of uncredited lifts by Jimmy Page and others of the Yardbirds and
Led Zeppelin has been debated since the late 1960's.  On July 27, 2007, interest
in it, and debates on the Internet, arose again after it was discussed on The
Howard Stern Show.
  A subset of the Zep fans are fanatical.  To them, Led Zep are gods and they
refuse to admit LZ misuse of research material (in contrast to. say, Eric Clap-
ton's credit-giving habits).  "My heroes are Gods, and sin is to be less than
God, so by definition my God can't sin."  Present an example and some ironically
accuse you of making it up out of hate for the group.  The fan seems like a cult
member with a persecution complex.  It's like I'm writing another chapter on the
Jehovah's Witnesses.
  They may even find old quotes from artists who took substantial ideas from
others without credit who said, "It's just borrowing--everybody does it.  It's
an homage," etc.  But it makes a difference in where the money goes, too, and
Led Zep money could be substantial.  If somebody "borrowed" your car like that,
you probably wouldn't call it an homage and say everyone does it, and your car
probably isn't worth as much.
  I'd recommend just presenting the evidence and not getting frustrated about
subjectivity clouding their ability to be objective--that's not your responsi-
bility.  Actually, I enjoy a number of Yardbirds and Led Zep recordings, but
that, and that they were talented and wealthy, is why the lifts seem all the
more stupid to me like Oprah or McCartney trying to run out of a grocery store
without paying for the stuff in their shopping cart.  I don't know a case of
credit hogging as big for any other major act.
  The basic groundrules I'll be using:
  Generally in pop music, the song is the melody.  The words, if any, are the
lyrics.  The song may also be thought to be the melody and the lyrics.  The rest
is the arrangement.
  A song can be given a variety of arrangements and some variation but if it's
substantially recognizable as the original the credit typically goes to the
original songwriter(s), possibly with an added "arranged by."
  To be considered a stolen part of a song/arrangement, the part has to be more
distinctive than something commonly used without anyone considering it a theft
such as the phrase "I love you" and more substantial than just a reference to a
distinctive name or such.
  The law on it has been refined since the early 1900's (which is one reason
that it's easier to find old quotes rationalizing plagiarism and newer quotes
about law suits), but hogging credit isn't anything new.  Buster Keaton's "The
Playhouse," 1921, parodied Thomas Ince for doing something similar--taking ex-
cessive credits for his movies.
  Judgment may vary depending on the particulars of a case.  Some old songs have
become public domain (yet I still prefer to see credit for the author or, if un-
known, "trad. arr. by").  I'm not a legal authority don't want to force points,
so I'll just give the evidence and point out where I find the sort of distinc-
tive substantial similarities in songs that show something was taken from an
earlier work without credit.
  A batch of examples is at the next link.
  A number of examples are in the "Led Zeppelin II Influences" video by Gianin-
  "Led Zeppelin Examples of Plagiarism" by DeadEros
  You can click the appropriate tabs for many examples at:
  A few more examples are in an article by Will Shade (Jan., 2001, revised
March, 2008).
  This would be easier to demonstrate if someone supplied the evidence, which
includes recordings found on You Tube, which some people also have a problem
with.  Oh, where, oh, where will we find such a disreputable person?

  "Stroll On"
  "Smile On Me"
  "White Summer"
  "Babe I'm Gonna Leave You"
  "Dazed and Confused"
  "Black Mountain Side"
  "How Many More Times"
  "Whole Lotta Love"
  "The Lemon Song"
  "Moby Dick"
  "Bring it on Home"
  "Hats Off to (Roy) Harper"
  "Since I've Been Lovin' You"
  "Stairway to Heaven"
  "When The Levee Breaks"
  "Custard Pie"
  "In My Time of Dying"
  "Trampled Under Foot"
  "Boogie With Stu"
  "Nobody's Fault But Mine"

  "Stroll On"
  "The Train Kept a-Rollin'" was written by Tiny Bradshaw, Howard Kay, and Lois
Mann.  Bradshaw recorded it in 1951.  It was recorded by Johnny Burnette and the
Rock and Roll Trio in 1956, the Yardbirds in 1965, and the Aerosmith version
from "Get Your Wings" was a hit in 1974.
  Johnny Burnette and the Rock and Roll Trio's version, 1956, is at the next
  Director Michelangelo Antonioni wanted The Yardbirds to do "The Train Kept
a-Rollin'" for the movie "Blow Up," 1966, but he didn't want to pay as much as
the copyright holders asked for.  The Yardbirds rewrote the lyrics and called it
"Stroll On" to get it in the movie.
  The songwriting credits for "Stroll On" are given to Jeff Beck, Chris Dreja,
Jim McCarty, Jimmy Page, and Keith Relf.  Writing new lyrics for a song doesn't
honestly make it your song, though.  (Don't you kids try it at home.)  It would
have been better if they chipped in to help the director pay the regular royal-
ties or persuaded him to pick a different song.

  "Smile On Me"
  I don't think it's a case of a rip-off but just basic influence, and added it
for comparison and because the solo breaks are cool.
  Basically, it's a rewrite of two blues songs.
  In 2001, Will Shade asked Jim McCarty if "Smile On Me" was based on an earlier
Yardbirds song--"Rack My Mind."  Jim said, "Yeah, and 'All Your Love,' too, the
Otis Rush tune."
  "All Your Love (I Miss Loving)" by Otis Rush (during 1956 to 1958).
  The melody of the verses have a structure similar to "All Your Love," and both
break into a faster part for the solo, but it's probably too basic a blues for-
mula to be a copyright violation.  It's more a case of using someone else's
basic format to write your own basic blues song with.
  "Rack My Mind" on "The Yardbirds" (also known as "Roger the Engineer"), 1966,
was based on "Baby Scratch My Back," 1966, by James Moore, who used the name
"Slim Harpo."  The credit for "Rack My Mind" was given to Beck, Dreja, McCarty,
Relf, and Samwell-Smith.
  "Smile On Me" (with cool guitar solo breaks--don't let it be said I'm stingy
with the coolness credits when something is cool) is credited to Dreja, McCarty,
Page, and Relf.
  Davey Graham wrote an arrangement for the traditional folk song "She Moved
Through The Fair" called "She Moved Thru' the Bizarre (Medley with Blue Raga)."
  Jimmy Page practically made a recital of the distinctive things about it as if
it was meant to teach people how good Davy's version was.   He gave it the name
"White Summer."
  The credit for "White Summer" on "Little Games," 1967, by the Yardbirds, and
later Led Zep albums, was given to Jimmy Page.  It's cool, but Page neither
wrote the song nor came up with the basic idea for the version.  The title is
  What's next?  Jimmy Page has a lovely follow-up song for the holidays--"White
Christmas."  He'll be standing with a pipe by a fireside, "I'm dreaming...."
Then the ghost of Bob Hope comes out and slaps him right in the face.  No, no,
  Anne Bredon wrote "Babe I'm Gonna Leave You" in the late 1950's.
  According to Wikipedia, Janet Smith came up with a version of it but lost
track of the authorship.  "It became the opening track on Joan Baez in Concert,
Part 1.  When this album was in production, Vanguard Records contacted Smith to
determine the authorship of the song.  Because Smith was unable to track down
Bredon prior to the release of Baez's album, the song was credited as 'Tradi-
tional, arr. Baez' on Joan Baez in Concert, Part 1.  Anne Bredon was properly
credited, however, in the Joan Baez Song Book, which was published in 1964."
  The original 1962 Joan Baez version--the one credited as a traditional--from
"Joan Baez in Concert, Part 1" is at the next link.  But it can't be the only
source for Led Zep's version because the lyrics have a lot of differences from
Led Zep's version.  If Led Zep is the source of those differences for what they
thought was a traditional song it's weird, especially considering some of these
other examples, that originally Led Zep didn't claim any credit for the song-
writing--they only left out credit (and royalties) for Bredon.
  The Led Zep lyrics are at the next link.
  At first, the first "Led Zeppelin" album, Jan., 1969, credited it as a tradi-
tional song arranged by Jimmy Page.  But after Bredon's kid told her he thought
she did a Led Zeppelin song and she took legal action, it got both better and
worse--in 1990 it was changed to Anne Bredon/Jimmy Page and Robert Plant.
  Now she has credit but it's part credit (so 1/3rd royalties) shared with two
that didn't think they wrote it but changed their minds and decided they did
after legal action began.
  This segues nicely into:
  Jake Holmes wrote "Dazed and Confused" for "The Above Ground Sound Of Jake
Holmes," June, 1967.

Jake Holmes opened for the Yardbirds with Jimmy Page in 1967.
  Keith Relf of the Yardbirds changed some lyrics and Jimmy Page added a middle
section for a Yardbirds version.  Page rewrote the lyrics again for the first
Led Zep album.
  The 1969 Led Zep credit is Jimmy Page.  According Will Shade, when he asked
Holmes when he knew about the Led Zep version, Holmes said, "When the album came
out!  And then, stupidly, I never followed up on it," Jake Holmes said.  "In the
early 1980's, I did write them a letter and I said basically: 'I understand it's
a collaborative effort, but I think you should give me credit at least and some
remuneration.' But they never contacted me."
  The Will Shade article also contains this segment of a 1990 interview in Musi-
cian magazine with Jimmy Page:
    Musician: I understand "Dazed & Confused" was originally a song by
  Jake Holmes. Is that true?
    Page: [Sourly] I don't know. I don't know. [Inhaling] I don't know
  about all that.
    Musician: Do you remember the process of writing that song?
    Page: Well, I did that with the Yardbirds originally... The Yardbirds
  were such a good band for a guitarist to play in that I came up with a
  lot of riffs and ideas out of that, and I employed quite a lot of those
  in the early Zeppelin stuff.
    Musician: But Jake Holmes, a successful jingle writer in New York,
  claims on his 1967 record that he wrote the original song.
    Page: Hmm. Well, I don't know. I don't know about that. I'd rather
  not get into it because I don't know all the circumstances.  What's he
  got, The riff or whatever?  Because Robert wrote some of the lyrics for
  that on the album.  But he was only listening to....  we extended it
  from the one that we were playing with the Yardbirds.
    Musician: Did you bring it into the Yardbirds?
    Page: No, I think we played it 'round a sort of melody line or some-
  thing that Keith [Relf] had.  So I don't know.  I haven't heard Jake
  Holmes so I don't know what it's all about anyway.  Usually my riffs
  are pretty damn original. [laughs]  What can I say?
  Jimmy sure sounds guilty.  Will Shade asked Yardbird Chris Dreja what he
thought about Page's 40-year denial.  Chris said, "It's the guilt."
  "During a 1967 tour of the United States by English rock group The Yard-
  birds, Jake Holmes performed as the opener at the Village Theater in Green-
  wich Village on August 25, 1967. The Yardbirds were inspired by his perfor-
  mance and decided to work up their own arrangement. Their version featured
  long instrumental passages of bowed guitar courtesy of Jimmy Page, and dynam-
  ic instrumental flourishes. Page has stated that he obtained the idea of us-
  ing a violin bow on his guitar from a violinist named David McCallum, Sr.,
  during his session days before joining the Yardbirds in 1966. At that time,
  it even had a little Eastern influence, as can be heard on some French tele-
  vision appearances. It quickly became a staple of The Yardbirds' live perfor-
  mance during the last year of their act.
    "The song was never officially recorded by the band, although a live ver-
  sion recorded on 30 March 1968 is included on the album Live Yardbirds: Fea-
  turing Jimmy Page under the alternate title 'I'm Confused'. Notably, it is
  the only track that has no songwriter credits on the release. Another live
  version of the song, recorded on the French TV series 'Bouton Rouge' on 9
  March 1968, was included on the CD Cumular Limit in 2000 and was credited 'by
  Jake Holmes arr. Yardbirds.'
    "The Led Zeppelin version was not credited to Holmes. Page used the title,
  penned a new set of lyrics, and changed enough of the melody to escape a pla-
  giarism lawsuit from Holmes — the song's arrangement, however, remained
  markedly similar to the version performed by The Yardbirds the previous year.
  While Holmes took no action at the time, he did later contact Page in regards
  to the matter. Page had not replied as of 2001. In June 2010 Holmes filed a
  lawsuit in United States District Court, alleging copyright infringement and
  naming Page as a co-defendant. The 2012 live album Celebration Day attributes
  the song to 'Page; inspired by Jake Holmes', although the writer's credit with
  ASCAP remains unchanged."
    "It is still not widely recognized that Holmes was the author of the clas-
  sic song. Page, while on tour with the Yardbirds in 1967, saw Holmes perform
  the song in Greenwich Village. Within months, he had adapted the song for
  that group, and later, for Led Zeppelin. For reasons that are not entirely
  clear, Page claimed sole songwriting credit for the song when it appeared on
  Led Zeppelin's debut album. Holmes later sent Page a letter about the song-
  writing credits but received no reply.
    "In June 2010, Holmes filed a lawsuit against Jimmy Page for copyright in-
  fringement in United States District Court, claiming Page knowingly copied
  his work.
    "November 2012's release of Celebration Day (The Led Zeppelin Reunion Show
  at the O2) credits Dazed and Confused as written by Jimmy Page inspired by
  Jake Holmes."
  Do you get royalties for "inspired by"?  I think I'd prefer (Jake Holmes;
adapted and additional material by Jimmy Page) or (Holmes/Page).
  I'm agreeing with Jake Holmes on this one.  Holmes should get partial credit,
and people should ask for and get permission first before copyrighting a combin-
ation they create with someone else's song.

  The full story is at the next link:
  See the section below on "Tangerine."
  Bert Jansch wrote an arrangement of the traditional Irish song "Blackwater-
side" and released it on the 1966 album "Jack Orion."
  Jimmy Page did a slightly embellished version except without the vocal, called
it "Black Mountain Side," and released it in 1969.
    "The accompaniment was nicked by a well-known member of one of the
  most famous rock bands, who used it, unchanged, on one of their records,"
  Jansch was quoted as saying in Doug Kennedy's 1983 "The Songs and Guitar
  Solos of Bert Jansch."
  The Led Zep credit is Jimmy Page.  Page didn't write the song.  He has a fol-
low up soon to be released--"Foggy Mountain Breakdown," featuring his new style
of snazzy pickin.'  (The rumored follow-up is tentatively titled "Dueling
  Led Zeppelin mainly used Otis' 1966 version for "Led Zeppelin," 1969.
  It's a blues song Willie Dixon wrote for Otis Rush, 1956, and credited to
Dixon.  I just added it to this list because it lends support to the idea Led
Zep knew Dixon was the author of the other songs of his they didn't credit him
for originally.
  Thanks to the "Turn Me On, Dead Man" web site for most of the information
given below.
  The title and basic structure come from the Chester Burnett "Howlin' Wolf"
tune "How Many More Years," 1951.
  The lyrics...
  "I was a young man, I couldn't resist
  Started thinkin' it all over, just what I had missed
  Got me a girl and I kissed her and then, and then
  Whoops, oh Lordy, well I did it again"
  ...come from  the Weavers' song "Kisses Sweeter Than Wine," which was a hit
for Jimmie Rodgers in 1957:
  "Well, when I was a young man never been kissed
  I got to thinkin' it over how much I had missed
  So I got me a girl and I kissed her and then, and then
  Oh, lordy, well I kissed her again"
  The origin of "Kisses Sweeter Than Wine" was a traditional Irish song "Drim-
min Down," which was given a blues chording by Leadbelly for "If it Wasn't for
Dicky," 1937, which Pete Seeger changed the chorus of a bit and Lee Hayes wrote
new verses for.
  The lyrics...
  "Well they call me the hunter, that's my name
  They call me the hunter, that's how I got my fame
  Ain't no need to hide, Ain't no need to run
  'Cause I've got you in the sights of my gun"
  ...come from the first two and last two lines from the verse below from "The
Hunter" by Steve Cropper and Donald "Duck" Dunn of Booker T. and the M.G.s while
backing up Albert King, 1967, with a change to the second line and "love"
dropped from the fourth.  (Cover version at the next link.)
  "They call me the hunter, that's my name
  A pretty woman like you, is my only game
  I bought me a love gun, just the other day
  And I aim to aim it your way
  Ain't no use to hide, ain't no use to run
  'Cause I've got you in the sights of my love gun"
  "Alexis Korner--On the Move" features "O Rosie," credited to "Trad. Arr. Korn-
er" and "Steal Away" which Robert Plant co-wrote with Alexis Korner and Steve
Miller and recorded in 1968.
  The lyrics...
  "Oh, Rosie, oh, girl
  Steal away now, steal away
  Little Robert Anthony wants to come and play"
  ...of "How Many More Times" refer to two songs by others.  Alan Lomax recorded
them in the southern USA.  "Oh, Rosie" is a prison work song Lomax recorded in
1947 or 1948 for "Prison Songs: Historical Recordings from Parchman Farm 1947-
48, Volume 2."  "Steal Away" originated in the days of US slavery and is a
Christian spiritual for "Negro Religious Songs and Services."  "Steal Away" was
also sung as a "freedom song" by activists in the civil rights movement in the
1950s and 1960s.
  "Steal Away" by Mahalia Jackson with Nat King Cole
  "Rosie" recorded by Alan Lomax
  (According to the "Turn Me On, Dead Man" web site, the bass line is like that
of the Yardbirds' cover of Howlin' Wolf's "Smokestack Lightning," which is es-
pecially clear on the Dec., 1965--before Page was a member--version by the Yard-
birds on the BBC Sessions collection.  Dunno--I couldn't find it on You Tube.)
  The song is credited to Bonham/Jones/Page.  Robert Plant, the fourth member of
Led Zep, would have claimed the songwriting credit, too, but according to Wiki-
  - "As with all the other tracks on Led Zeppelin's debut album, Robert Plant
didn't get a writing credit for this song due to unexpired contractual obliga-
tions, but he undoubtedly had a large influence in its construction."
  - "In an interview he gave to Guitar World magazine in 1993, Page stated that
the song 'was made up of little pieces I developed when I was with the Yard-
birds, as were other numbers such as 'Dazed and Confused.'"
  - "...all new Led Zeppelin releases since 1993 have co-credited the song with
Chester Burnett via arrangement with his publishing company, ARC Music.  Cover
versions by many artists, such as the LA Guns 1999 version on the album Shrink-
ing Violet, however, are not credited to Burnett."
  If Burnett gets 1/4th credit, after legal proceedings, for just the basic
structure and title, a couple others, Lee Hayes and the Booker T. lyricist of
"The Hunter," are owed remunerations, too.  Led Zep has another original compan-
ion song saved up for release: "How many more roads must a man walk down before
you call him...." arranged by Les Zimmerman.
  Further answering the age-old musical question, "How do they come up with them
so fast?":
  Willie Dixon wrote "You Need Love" in 1953.  McKinley "Muddy Waters" Morgan-
field recorded it in 1962.
  The Small Faces, with Steve Marriott's vocal, did a version called "You Need
Loving" in 1966.  They neglected to credit Dixon and credited it to Lane/Mar-
  In May, 1966, Jimmy Page, Jeff Beck, Keith Moon, and John Paul Jones recorded
some things and they (I think it was just the first three?) and John Entwistle
considered forming their own group.
  Sometime during the last couple years of Jimmy Page's tenure with the Yard-
birds, 1966-1968, a hostile reaction came from the Small Faces' management when
they were asked if Steve Marriott could be the vocalist for the potential new
  According to an interview by Steven Rosen for Modern Guitars, May 24, 2007,
Jimmy Page said this about Steve Marriott and his management:
  "He was contacted, and the reply came back from his manager’s office: 'How
would you like to have a group with no fingers, boys?'  Or words to that effect.
So the group was dropped because of Marriott’s other commitment, to the Small
  For Led Zep's version of "You Need Love," "Whole Lotta Love," Robert Plant
used Steve Marriott's vocal style, including a variation of the same kind of
break near the end of the song the Small Faces used (" need...
love....").  It has Willie's words and basic blues construction  but sounds
more--a whole lotta more--like Steve Marriott.
  (It also has one of those "Magic Carpet Ride," Steppenwolf, 1968, solo sec-
tions where nobody solos but just makes sounds or whatever for five minutes or
so, an idea John and Yoko unfortunately elaborated on seemingly interminably
from around this time for several years, possibly the fault of heroin use in the
case of John and Yoko.  We're not sure if that part's a matter of songwriting
credit or blame.  Page was financing organized crime buying their cocaine, then
heroin, throughout his time with Led Zep, too.  Everybody listening to the Led
Zep break speeds past it to the part where the band comes in with "womp womp"s
like "I Ain't Got You" by the Yardbirds with Eric Clapton except used in the
first of pairs of measures instead of the second of pairs.)
  Led Zep originally credited "Whole Lotta Love" to Jimmy Page and Robert Plant.
Since the lawsuit was settled out of court in 1985, the name Willie Dixon was
added to Jimmy Page, Robert Plant, John Bonham, and John Paul Jones.  I guess
Steve didn't play fair about crediting Dixon either (or Jimmy was PO'ed about
what happened when he talked to Small Faces' management) so Led Zep considered
him as disqualified.  Actually, it owes at least as much to Steve, though.  The
basic song, not determined by arrangement, solos, and tempos, should recognize
Dixon via Marriott.
  Like "Babe I'm Gonna Leave You," it got better and worse the same way: two
more Led Zep members decided they helped write the song since it was first re-
leased, so the claimant got an even smaller fraction of the royalties--1/5th.

  Willie Dixon used the money from this settlement for the Blues Heaven Founda-
tion which he founded in 1984.
  Sound-alike recordings have become a matter of identity ownership litigation
in recent years, too.  I'm no entertainment lawyer, but I wonder if it matters
regarding the Steve Marriott impression.
  According to Wikipedia: "In the 1980s, singer Bette Midler sued over a sound-
alike song being used in a commercial which sounded too close to the original.
In the 1990s, guitarist Carlos Santana sued over a commercial music bed that
closely imitated his playing and arranging style."
  (See "Bring It On Home.")
  Chester "Howling Wolf" Burnette wrote "Killing Floor."
  The Electric Flag covered "Killing Floor," Michael Bloomfield on lead guitar,
for "A Long Time Comin,'" April, 1968.  The Electric Flag's version (with cool
solos) changed "first mind" to "second mind," which Led Zep used.
  (The quote at the start of it is by Pres. Lyndon Johnson: "I speak tonight for
the dignity of man, and the destiny of democracy.  I urge every member of both
  (I guess the sax solo near the end of it correlates to the section of noises
near the end of "Whole Lotta Love" except the sax soloist actually does some-
  Jimi Hendrix was getting a lot of enthusiastic attention while performing the
song through this period.
  Robert Johnson wrote "Travelling Riverside Blues" and recorded it on June 20,
1937.  Led Zep did a cover of the song for the BBC in 1969 so probably got the
lemon part of the lyrics from Johnson's last verse, though the euphemism had
been used before.

  The arrangement is like Albert King's "Cross Cut Saw" and the lyric has a bit
of Fleetwood Mac's "Stop Messin’ Round"--"fallin’ out of bed."
  According to the Wikipedia article on "The Lemon Song": "The song borrows sig-
nificantly from Howlin' Wolf's 'Killing Floor", which was a song Led Zeppelin
often incorporated into their live setlist during their first concert tour of
the United States.  For the second and third North American tours the song
evolved into 'The Lemon Song,' with Plant often improvising lyrics onstage.
However, despite Howlin' Wolf's influence on the arrangement, the album sleeve
of Led Zeppelin II initially credited only the four members of Led Zeppelin."
  The right column of that Wikipedia article only credits those four, too.
  According to the Songfacts site: "On the original British copies of Led Zep-
pelin II, the label on the record lists 'Killing Floor' as the third track and
is credited to Chester Burnett (Howlin' Wolf's real name), while the liner lists
'The Lemon Song' and credits Led Zeppelin."
  According to the Wikipedia article on "Killing Floor": "The song was retitled
'The Lemon Song' and after legal involvement on the part of Chester Burnett's
publishers, the song was credited to 'Page/Plant/Jones/Bonham/Burnett.'"
  The basic song, not determined by arrangement, solos, and tempos, should not
only at least but primarily recognize Wolf, who ended up listed last in the
credits.  (For those keeping score on the home game, mention could be made of a
small lyric contribution by the Electric Flag.)  Credit for the lyrics added by
Robert Plant should have been added after permission was granted to add them if
permission was granted.
  However, unlike "Babe I'm Gonna Leave You," Led Zep seems to have seen some-
thing coming on this one and was already prepared to say all of them helped
write the song so the most the claimant would get (and derive from Led Zep roy-
alties) is 1/5th.
  "The Girl I Love" was covered by Led Zeppelin for the BBC on June 16, 1969 and
was broadcast on Chris Grant's Tasty Pop Sundae on June 22, 1969.
  "The Girl I Love She Got Long Black Wavy Hair," on the 1997 album "BBC Ses-
sions," 1997, credits Bonham/Estes/Jones/Page/Plant.
  Bobby Parker came up with a memorable riff for "Watch Your Step," (Robert Lee
Parker), 1961.
  Sonny Boy Williamson II used the riff for "One Way Out" (Marshall Sehorn/El-
more James), Sept., 1961, featuring Buddy Guy, which was later covered by The
Allman Brothers on "Eat a Peach," 1972.
  The riff Led Zeppelin used for it sounds like a slight variation of the riff
Bobby Parker came up with for "Watch Your Step," 1961.  (It was also nicked by
John Lennon for "I Feel Fine," 1964, and given a bit more of a variation, and
added to with more of a song, than Led Zep used--see the You Tube video below
for John's explanation about trying to avoid accusations of theft.  Below that
is a link for Ray Charles' "What'd I Say.")
  (John didn't fare as well with making a slight variation on a line from "You
Can't Catch Me" to write "Here come old flat top, he come groovin' up slowly"
for "Come Together."  But he did get to make friends with Chuck Berry after the
settlement.  I think he meant to get Chuck again later, though, by having Yoko
scream during "Memphis" on "The Mike Douglas Show."  Then Chuck seems to have
gotten John back by having the sound turned off on John's guitar solo and Yoko
during "Johnny B. Goode.")
  Led Zeppelin mainly relied on the riff, the same riff as Led Zep used on the
BBC but no vocal, for the beginning and end of "Moby Dick" on "Led Zeppelin II,"
Oct., 1968.  It's really just the basic blues changes used for a riff song,
though, and it's basically identifiable as Bobby Parker's riff.  The writers are
given as Bonham/Jones/Page.
  Willie Dixon (see "Whole Lotta Love") wrote "Bring it on Home."
  There were two guys who called themselves Sonny Boy Williamson--John Lee
Curtis Williamson, "The Original Sonny Boy Williamson," and Aleck "Rice" Miller,
Sonny Boy Williamson II, who lived longer and lived to become more famous.
"Rice" Williamson recorded "Bring it on Home."
  Part of the Williamson II version is included in the "Led Zeppelin II Influ-
ences" video by GianinniAnotherDay at the next link.
  Led Zep added a middle section but didn't credit Dixon for the beginning and
end.  As with "Whole Lotta Love," the beginning and end of this recording sound
more like cover versions, in this case with Robert sounding like he's doing an
impression of Williamson II.  It was settled for Dixon, if not Williamson, out
of court, and is now credited to Willie Dixon, Jimmy Page, and Robert Plant.
Again, Led Zep should ask for and get permission before adding to someone else's
song and copyrighting it.
  According to the article by Will Shade:
  Jim McCarty. a former member of the Yardbirds, said, "He [Keith Relf] should
really be given a credit for that one," referring to the lyrics of the second
verse of "Knowing That I'm Losing You," which appear as the first verse of "Tan-
  The verse he referred to is:
  "Measuring a summer's day
  I only finds it slips away to grey
  The hours they bring me pain."
  "Led Zeppelin III," 1970, gave the credit for "Tangerine" to Page, who also
suppressed the release of the later Yardbirds recordings the other surviving
Yardbirds wanted to release:
  One was "Live Yardbirds Featuring Jimmy Page," released most recently on CD
in 2000, suppressed despite Jim McCarty, Chris Dreja, and Keith Relf's family
favoring the release.
  According to Wikipedia: "Jimmy Page has obtained legal injunctions against
companies who have planned to reissue it on compact disc.  For this reason, it
is the rarest Yardbirds album."
  "The Anderson Theatre show I didn't think was too bad--Jimmy says Keith had a
bad night," McCarty said. "I think it was more a case of doing 'Dazed and Con-
fused' pre-Zeppelin that made him withdraw it."
  The other was "Cumular Limit," 2000, mainly the final studio sessions from
New York City in April, 1968.  "Knowing That I'm Losing You" was kept off it,
then the CD itself was suppressed.  It credited a live version of "Dazed and
Confused" as noted by Wikipedia: "A Yardbirds live recording from french TV ser-
ies 'Bouton Rouge' (recorded on 9 March 1968) was released on Cumular Limit in
2000, credited as 'Dazed and Confused' by Jake Holmes arr. Yardbirds."
  It also credits "White Summer" to "trad. arr. Page."  (Again, what about Davey
Graham?  Poor little Davey, tears frozen to his cheeks standing out in the cold
with a cup.)  Maybe Jimmy could change his name to "traditional" and get it over
with.  ("Thanks for singing 'Happy Birthday To You' to me.  I'll take bills,
checks, or credit cards.")
  The lyrics are almost entirely a mix from several blues songs, notably slight-
ly changed but recognizable lines from "Lone Wolf Blues" by Oscar Woods and
"Shake 'Em On Down" by Bukka White, with a slight variation of a couple lines,
also used in "Custard Pie," from "Help Me" by Sonny Boy Williamson II.  It also
has the title phrase from "Brown Skin Woman" by either Sunnyland Slim or Howlin'
Wolf, and a couple of lines I don't know the original author of.  The slide gui-
tar sounds similar to Mississippi Fred McDowell's version of "Shake 'Em On Down."
  Thanks to the Turn Me On Dead Man site for a line by line analysis.
  When I done quit hollerin', babe                   Shake 'Em On Down
  I believe I'll shake 'em on down                    Shake 'Em On Down  
  Get me, baby, won't be late                               ?
  You know by that I mean not seconds late          ?
  Must I holler, must I shake 'em on down        Shake 'Em On Down
  When I done quit hollerin', babe                    Shake 'Em On Down
  I believe I'll shake 'em on down                     Shake 'Em On Down
  Well, I ain't no monkey, I can't climb no tree         Lone Wolf Blues
  No brown-skin woman                                    Brown Skin Woman
  Gonna make no monkey outta me                       Lone Wolf Blues
  Yeah, I ain't no monkey, sure can't climb no tree   Lone Wolf Blues
  I been mistreated, babe                                      Lone Wolf Blues
  I believe I'll shake 'em on down                     Shake 'Em On Down
  Well, I been mistreated, babe                              Lone Wolf Blues
  I believe I'll shake 'em on down                     Shake 'Em On Down  
  Listen, mama, put on your morning gown            Help Me
  Put on your nightshirt, mama                             Help Me
  We gonna shake 'em on down                     Shake 'Em On Down
  Must I shake 'em on down                           Shake 'Em On Down
  Well, I done been mistreated baby                       Lone Wolf Blues
  I believe I'll shake 'em on down                    Shake 'Em On Down
  Gave my baby twenty-dollar bill                           Lone Wolf Blues
  If that don't finish her, I'm sure my shotgun will     Lone Wolf Blues
  Yeah, I gave my babe twenty-dollar bill                Lone Wolf Blues
  Well, if that don't get that woman out                   Lone Wolf Blues
  I'm sure my shotgun will                                     Lone Wolf Blues
  Yeah, I'll go shoot her, now 
  Mississippi Fred McDowell's version of "Shake 'Em On Down" is at the next
  The lyrics of "Help Me" by Sonny Boy Williamson II.
  "Hats Off to (Roy) Harper" is credited on "Led Zeppelin III," 1970, as a trad-
itional song, which precludes royalty payments, arranged by Jimmy Page (the
pseudonym Charles Obscure was used early on).  What traditional song?  Credit
should go at least to Oscar Woods and Bukka White.

  "Since I've Been Lovin' You"

  Led Zep released "Since I've Been loving You" on "Led Zeppelin III," 1970.
  Moby Grape recorded "Never" which was released on the 1968 double album "Wow/
Grape Jam" (on the start of side one of the jam sessions).
  Led Zep's Robert Plant was a fan of Moby Grape and used some of the lyrics of
"Never" for "Since I've Been Lovin' You."
  Thanks to the Turn Me On, dead man" web site for the information below.
  The two songs are similar blues songs, and the lyrics of the opening verse,
bridge, and closing verse of the two are similar.
  The first verse of "Never":
  Working from 11:00 to 7:00 every night
  Ought to make life a drag
  And I know that ain't right
  The lyrics of both otherwise share "the best of fools," "I love you, baby,"
and references to crying.
  The lyrics of "Since I've Been Loving You":
  Working from seven to eleven every night,
  It really makes life a drag, I don't think that's right.
  I've really, really been the best of fools, I did what I could.
  'Cause I love you, baby, How I love you, darling, How I love you, baby,
  How I love you, girl, little girl.
  But baby, Since I've Been Loving You. I'm about to lose my worried mind, oh, yeah.
  Everybody trying to tell me that you didn't mean me no good.
  I've been trying, Lord, let me tell you, Let me tell you I really did the best I could.
  I've been working from seven to eleven every night, I said It kinda makes my life a drag.
  Lord, that ain't right...
  Since I've Been Loving You, I'm about to lose my worried mind.
  Said I've been crying, my tears they fell like rain,
  Don't you hear, Don't you hear them falling,
  Don't you hear, Don't you hear them falling.
  Do you remember mama, when I knocked upon your door?
  I said you had the nerve to tell me you didn't want me no more, yeah
  I open my front door, hear my back door slam,
  You must have one of them new fangled back door man.
  I've been working from seven, seven, seven, to eleven every night, It kinda makes my life a drag...
  Baby, Since I've Been Loving You, I'm about to lose, I'm about lose to my worried mind.
  (The switch of 7 and 11 pm has Robert complain about working a four hour
shift, for some reason.  It's not exactly one of those prison work songs about
inhumane treatment--long concert night?)
  The lyrics of both otherwise share "the best of fools," "I love you, baby,"
and references to crying.
  "Since I've Been Loving You" is credited to Jimmy Page, Robert Plant, and John
Paul Jones.  The Moby Grape lyricist should at least be included and should have
been asked if it was okay first.
  Not related to the controversy:
  "Stairway to Gilligan's Island" Little Roger and the Goosebumps
  Randy California wrote "Taurus" and recorded it with Spirit in 1968.  Spirit
opened for Led Zep on their 1st USA tour.
  "Stairway to Heaven" is on the untitled fourth Led Zeppelin album (also called
"Zoso"), 1971.
  "Taurus" starts on the first four strings (counting down from the top) of Bm
and "Stairway to Heaven" starts on the first four strings of Am--two frets low-
er--on an acoustic guitar.  They both make a descending chromatic run (one fret
at a time) from the low note--the 4th string, every 2nd beat 5 times.  In both,
the notes of the 2nd and 3rd strings are maintained up to the 3rd time down the
run.  The biggest difference so far is that "Stairway" adds notes on the 1st
string on the upbeat before each of those 2nd beats and each 2nd beat of that
  They both use the 5th note of the descending run for the low note of the notes
of a chord ("Taurus" uses D major 7 and "Stairway" uses the note F and adds Am)
for the whole 3rd measure.  They resolve differently for the first few beats of
the 4th measure ("Taurus" uses the notes E and B and "Stairway" uses the notes B
and G then C and A).
  Both repeat except do something different for the last beat of the 4th mea-
  To see the guitar tabs below not garbled by Word Wrap, see the image at the
next link.
  "Taurus" intro

  "Stairway to Heaven" intro
  The tempos and the basic use of sweetening (what might be moog strings used in
"Taurus" and wooden bass recorders used in "Stairway to Heaven") of the two
songs are similar.
  (The passage also sounds like something Page favorite Davey Graham plays at the
start of verses of his uptempo rendition of "Cry Me a River," though the rest
isn't similar.)
  "Taurus" doesn't use the opening eight measures for the rest of the melody.
Then the whole melody repeats.
  "Stairway" repeats the eight measures to use them at the start of verses, and
the bass adheres more to the descending run than the guitar.
  (Page allegedly denies that he based his version on that section of "Taurus"--
I haven't found a quote yet).
  According to the Wikipedia article about "Stairway to Heaven": "In the liner
notes to the 1996 reissue of Spirit's debut album, songwriter Randy California
writes: People always ask me why 'Stairway to Heaven' sounds exactly like 'Taur-
us', which was released two years earlier.  I know Led Zeppelin also played
'Fresh Garbage' in their live set.  They opened up for us on their first Ameri-
can tour."
  Below is an excerpt from Jeff McLaughlin, "Spirit's Still Willing: A Conversa-
tion with Randy California," Listener, Winter 1997, p.51.
    Listener: "Speaking of Led Zeppelin, the guitar introduction to your
  1967 composition, 'Taurus,' is a dead ringer for Zeppelin's introduction
  to 'Stairway to Heaven,' released in 1971.  Did they ever acknowledge
  their artistic debt to you?  They must of known 'Taurus,' having per-
  formed as your warmup band."
    California: "Well, if you listen to the two songs, you can make your
  own judgment.  It's an exact....  I'd say it was a rip-off.  And the
  guys made millions of bucks on it and never said, 'Thank you,' never
  said, 'Can we pay you some money for it?'  It's kind of a sore point
  with me.  Maybe some day their conscience will make them do something
  about it.  I don't know.  There are funny business dealings between
  record companies, managers, publishers, and artists.  But when artists
  do it to other artists, there's no excuse for that.  I'm mad!  [laughs]."
    Listener: "Well, take comfort in the fact that you're the true author
  of one of the most instantly recognizable guitar riffs in rock history."
    California: "Yeah, right...."
  Randy drowned when he saved his son from a strong rip current at Molokai, Haw-
aii in Jan., 1997.
  I think this might be a gray area.  Jimmy was in the circumstances to hear
"Taurus," the other examples of this article show he wasn't shy about taking
other people's stuff (like Ed Norton helping himself to Ralph's refrigerator
in "The Honeymooners"), but what he took in this case may be basic enough, and
personalized his own way enough, that I'm not sure what a court would do with
it.  The final test is if people recognize it, and about anyone does.  But if
the court didn't rule in favor of the claimant, it would be left to be another
example we'd know of Jimmy taking something and not being forthright about it.
  Kansas Joe MCoy & Memphis Minnie wrote "When The Levee Breaks" (Kansas Joe Mc-
Coy and Memphis Minnie) in 1929.
  Led Zeppelin covered the song with their own arrangement on "Led Zeppelin IV,"
1971.  "According to Led Zeppelin guitarist and producer Jimmy Page, the song's
structure 'was a riff that I'd been working on, but Bonzo's drum sound really
makes a difference on that point.'"  The credits listed are Bonham, Jones, Mem-
phis Minnie, Page, and Plant.  I would figure it for (Kansas Joe McCoy and Mem-
phis Minnie; arr. by Bonham, Jones, Page, and Plant).

  I don't know any examples of credit/royalty filching for the next Led Zep al-
bum, "Houses of the Holy," 1973.  And again, that "The Rain Song" sure is purty.
This holy house didn't do anything wrong with the money from the collection
plate (other than that thing of financing organized crime to buy their cocaine).
Their next album was a double album of tunes, though, and apparently they
cracked under pressure like they did for the first one.
  It's a blues done in a riff style.  All of the lyrics are taken from "Drop
Down Mama" by Sleepy John Estes, recorded in 1935 by Estes with Hammie Nixon,
and "I Want Some of Your Pie" from 1939 by Blind Boy Fuller, with a line given
twice that was taken from the 1937 Bukka White version of "Shake 'Em On Down"
and a slight variation of a line, also used in "Hats Off to (Roy) Harper," given
twice from "Help Me" by Sonny Boy Williamson II.
  Thanks to the Turn Me On Dead Man site for a line by line analysis of all of
the lyrics.
  Drop down, baby, let your daddy see                                    Drop Down Mama
  Drop down, mama, just dream of me                                     Drop Down Mama
  Well, my mama allow me to fool around all night long              Drop Down Mama
  Well, I may look like I'm crazy, I should know right from wrong  Drop Down Mama
  See me comin', throw your man out the door                           Drop Down Mama
  Ain't no stranger, been this way before                                    Drop Down Mama
  See me comin', mama, throw your man out the door                Drop Down Mama
  I ain't no stranger, I been this way before.                                Drop Down Mama 
  Put on your night shirt and your morning gown                      Help Me
  You know by night I'm gonna shake 'em on down               Shake 'Em On Down
  Put on your night shirt Mama, and your morning gown           Help Me
  Well, you know by night I'm gonna shake 'em on down       Shake 'Em On Down
  Your custard pie, yeah, sweet and nice                           I Want Some of Your Pie
  When you cut it, mama, save me a slice                         I Want Some of Your Pie
  Your custard pie, I declare, it's sweet and nice                 I Want Some of Your Pie
  I Like your custard pie                                                    I Want Some of Your Pie
  When you cut it, mama... mama, please save me a slice  I Want Some of Your Pie
  Chewin' a piece of your custard pie                                  I Want Some of Your Pie
  Drop down                                                                           Drop Down Mama
  "Drop Down Mama" by Sleepy John Estes
  "I Want Some of Your Pie" by Blind Boy Fuller
  The lyrics of "Help Me" by Sonny Boy Williamson II.
  "Physical Graffiti," 1975, gives the credits as Page/Plant.  Stripped to the
essentials, "Custard Pie" is a basic blues song, Page did a riff for it but Led
Zep didn't write any more than slight rephrasing of some lyrics, and Sleepy John
Estes and Blind Boy Fuller at least deserve to be included in the songwriting
credit since it's basically a blues medley assembled from the lyrics of two of
their tunes.
  I don't want to seem too harsh.  God forbid I don't show forbearance.  But if
John Lennon can be brought to task for two lines from Chuck Berry's "You Can't
Catch Me," I'm saying "guilty."
  If claimants come forward and win such a case, again Page and Plant are pre-
pared to try to reduce what the claimant gets to a fraction of the credit/royal-
  The earliest recording of the traditional gospel song "Jesus Make Up My Dying
Bed" was by Blind Willie Johnson recorded sometime between 1927 and 1930.
  Jimmy Page said he was influenced by Josh White's version, which adds the line
"Well, well, well, So I can die easy."  It was recorded a few years after John-
  Bob Dylan did a cover of it called "In My Time of Dyin'" on his first album,
"Bob Dylan," 1962, but didn't take songwriting credit for it.  His version in-
fluenced most later versions.
  The lyrics to the versions by Josh White and Bob Dylan
  Lyrics for the Led Zeppelin version
  Led Zep did the same song for "Physical Graffiti" in 1975 but all four agreed
to be at the ready from the start on this one and took songwriting credit for
it--Page, Plant, John Paul Jones, and John Bonham.  They did put a picture of
Johnson on the cover, not that songwriting royalties are decided that way.  Led
Zep did a distinctive version but it was a traditional song none of them wrote
with an added uptempo middle section.  That would be "traditional; additional
music and lyrics by...."

  The clavinet part during the verses sound like a slight change of the one used
for "Superstition," which was written and recorded by Stevie Wonder in 1972.
The chords used at the end of verses sound like something simple done instead of
the chords the horns use in choruses.  The vocal part stays in about the same
ball park, too.
  "Physical Graffiti," 1975, credits it to Page/Plant/Jones.  Jones played the
clavinet and said in an interview that the clavinet part is based on the one in
  Baby baby baby baby baby,
  Don't you know my love is true,
  Honey honey honey honey honey,
  Get up off of that money,
  Love love love love love,
  Ooh! my soul.
  Baby baby baby baby baby,
  Don't you know my love is true,
  Honey honey honey honey honey,
  Get up off of that money,
  Kiss kiss kiss kiss kiss,
  Ooh! my soul.
  Baby baby baby baby baby,
  Don't you know my love for you,
  Honey honey honey honey honey,
  Get up off of that money,
  Love love love love love,
  Ooh! my soul.
  Gimmie gimmie gimmie gimmie gimmie,
  Gimmie all the love you got,
  Gimmie gimmie gimmie gimmie gimmie,
  You got the best of lovin' now,
  Love love love love love,
  Ooh! my soul.
  Ritchie Valens came up with new lyrics for the music in 1959.  "Ooh My Head"
has the same rock and roll song construction with the vocalist doing the same
sort of things and the band dropping out during the last two measures of each
verse for the vocalist to do something for the title hook.  Valens didn't credit
Richard but added a reference to "Tutti Fruiti," another Little Richard tune.
  (Valens also referred to "Bony Moronie," a 1957 Larry Williams tune, "Peggy
Sue," a 1957 Buddy Holly tune written by Buddy Holly, Jerry Allison, and Norman
Petty, and "Lollipop," a 1958 tune recorded by Ronald and Ruby and The Chord-
ettes and written by Julius Dixson and Beverly Ross).
  Well, well, now, now baby
  Let's just go all night long
  Well, on, on, on, on, darlin
  I just want you-to-go-on more
  There won't be no tuttie fruiti
  No lolly pop, c'mon baby just
  Rock, rock, rock
  Well, now, now, now, now, honey
  We gonna rock all night
  Well babe, babe, babe, babe, baby
  We're just gonna go fine
  Well on, on, on, on, darlin'
  Ooh, my head!
  Well, Bonie Moronie, Peggy Sue yeah!
  They ain't gonna be around no more
  Well, on now dit-a-little darlin
  We just gonna party some more
  Daylight, I love you darlin
  Ooh my head! (now let's go)
  Well now, now, now, now, baby
  Keep me rockin on an on
  Well I just reelin' till it's over
  Oh,just all night long
  Well, now
  Ooh my head!
  Alright, WAIL.....
  Rock it out.....
  Come on.....
  My head is tired!
  "Boogie With Stu"
  "Been in town, my baby, We just got to rock on
  Yeah, darling, we just got to go home
  I don't want no tutti-frutti, no lollipop                "Ooh My Head"
  Come on, baby, just rock, rock, rock.             "Ooh My Head"
  Yeah-yeah-yeah-yeah, honey
  We've been shakin' all night
  Oh, darlin', we just got to roll right
  Ooh, my head... rock on.                               "Ooh My Head"
  Hey babe, hey babe [repeat]
  I don't want no tutti-frutti, no lollipop                "Ooh My Head"
  Come on baby, just rock, rock, rock."             "Ooh My Head"
  Several of the "Boogie With Stu" lines that aren't direct lifts use "just" and
"all night" like "Let's just go all night long" and "We gonna rock all night" in
"Ooh My Head."  It sounds like a cover of "Ooh My Head" with a few similar lines
made up for forgotten ones.
  Led Zep covered "Ooh My Soul" but called it "Boogie With Stu" for "Physical
Graffiti," 1975, and credited it to Page, Plant, Jones, Bonham, Ian Stewart (the
"Stu" of the title), and the mother of the late Ritchie Valens--apparently, an
accommodation was made so Valens' mother would get Valens' royalty, which was
cut to 1/6th of what it should have been.
  Overlooking the fact that none of them wrote it except whoever (probably Rob-
ert Plant on the spur of the moment) added a few lines to, and changed the title
of, "Ooh My Head" without permission, it's was good and bad mix of trying to
help Mrs. Valens but only gave Ritchie, via his Mom, partial credit and possibly
no royalties.
  According to Wikipedia:
  "In its credits, a 'Mrs. Valens' is mentioned as co-author in an attempt by
Led Zeppelin to pave the way for some of the royalties to reach Ritchie's moth-
er.  Eventually, a lawsuit was filed and it remains unclear whether Mrs. Valens
received any payment."
  A Guitar World interview with Jimmy Page on the issue of taking money that
doesn't belong to you with spurious songwriting credits is at the next link: 
  GW: "When you were borrowing from classic blues songs on the first
    two albums, did you ever think it would catch up to you?"
  Page: "You mean getting sued?  Well, as far as my end of it goes, I
    always tried to bring some thing fresh to anything that I used. I
    always made sure to come up with some variation.  In fact, I think
    in most cases, you would never know what the original source could
    be.  Maybe not in every case--but in most cases.  So most of the
    comparisons rest on the lyrics.  And Robert was supposed to change
    the lyrics, and he didn't always do that--which is what brought on
    most of the grief. They couldn't get us on the guitar parts of the
    music, but they nailed us on the lyrics.
      "We did, however, take some liberties, I must say [laughs]. But
    never mind; we did try to do the right thing, it blew up in our
    faces...  When we were up at Headley Grange recording Physical
    Graffiti, Ian Stewart came by and we started to jam.  The jam turned
    into Boogie With Stu, which was obviously a variation on 'Ooh My
    Head' by the late Ritchie Valens, which itself was actually a vari-
    ation of Little Richard's 'Ooh My Soul'.  What we tried to do was
    give Ritchie's mother credit because we heard she never received
    any royalties from any of her son's hits, and Robert did lean on
    that lyric a bit. So what happens?  They tried to sue us for all
    of the song!!  We had to say bugger off.  We could not believe it.
    So anyway, if there is any plagiarism, just blame Robert [laughs].
      "But seriously, blues men borrowed from each other constantly,
    and it is the same with jazz.  It is even happened to us. As a
    musician, I am only the product of my influences.  The fact that
    I listened to so many various styles of music has a lot to do
    with the way I play."
  According to the Turn Me On, Dead Man web site, a phrase has been left out of
the version of the interview above, which should read ""Curiously enough, the
one time we did try to do the right thing, it blew up in our faces."
  Uh, yeah--nice.  I guess "the one time we did try to do the right thing" can
be taken as an admission about some of the other cases listed in this article,
though it would still be more responsibly reflected in credits and royalties,
which aren't determined by flattery in interviews.  For those not familiar with
the UK slang Page used about Ritchie Valens' mother, the phrase means "f**k
  I'd assume the tunes for which songwriting credit is in question in this arti-
cle were ones both Jimmy and Robert were familiar with, and Page's credit is
also questioned in any of them in question, not just Plant.  In other cases,
where it's strictly a matter of one of them whose responsibility is criticized,
it's usually over the music (instrumentals "White Summer," "Moby Dick," "Black
Mountain Side") and songs done or heard while Page, not Plant, was a member of
the Yardbirds ("Dazed and Confused," "Knowing That I'm Losing You," possibly
"Taurus") and traditional songs taken credit for (a couple of those instrumen-
tals and "In My Time of Dying").
  Coming up with different arrangements or solos for others songs wasn't and
isn't typically a determining factor in songwriting credits.  The issue has
evolved but that was generally understood long before Led Zeppelin made their
first record.  One of the reasons it had evolved since the early 20th century
was to prevent ripoffs.  There was and is the possibility of exceptions made due
to friendly agreements, though none of these cases seem to be matters of those.
  Jimmy dodged the subject and put whatever blame he'd concede on his friend
Robert, describing himself as having done something that's commonly accepted.
(This part is more like an old Hope and Crosby movie.)
  "Boogie With Stu" is Valens' "Ooh My Soul" as a matter of course and not de-
termined by flattery or flame wars, solos, or older cases of musicians getting
ripped off.  If you wanted to offhandedly add a few lines to the lyrics of a
song and get credit you could if given permission.  (Don't add a change to a few
lyrics in a live recording or come up with a different arrangement and put your
name in the songwriting credits on your own.)
  But if you wanted to credit anyone beyond Valens by what had already been es-
tablished, you could more importantly add that Little Richard (whooo!) came up
with that construction but he wasn't credited, thanked, or given a picture on
the cover.
  As with several previous examples, all four members of Led Zep were at the
ready to take songwriting credit for it, this time getting friend and pianist
Ian Stewart in on the act and including one of the two writers the basic song
idea really came from via their Mom.  (Listen to it--how many people would it
take to write this thing?  What's the 5th guy do--say, "Have it go on for anoth-
er verse"?)  Being a good Mom, she chastised the young lads for their discrepan-
cy and was given the Led index finger for the trouble.
  "Nobody's Fault But Mine" by Blind Willie Johnson
  The Led Zep version on their album "Presence," 1976, breaks up the rhythm and
changes most of the lyrics of the gospel blues created by Blind Willie Johnson
with a vocal and slide guitar.  After changing "Superstition" enough to call
their own ("Trampled Underfoot"), they took a song from a second black blind
guy, this time getting their own copyright for an uncopyrighted song by one that
passed away.
  According to Wikipedia: "Many of the lyrics in the song such as 'Devil he told
me to roll' are traditional although American blues singer Blind Willie Johnson,
recorded it first in December 1927.  The 1927 version was about Johnson fretting
about physically not being able to read his Bible, being totally blind, and in-
curring the wrath of God.  The song in a sense is apocryphal in that Johnson
later died from pneumonia that set in from sleeping on a wet mattress after the
roof burned off of his house.  Johnson never applied for a copyright for the
song and so the band was free to apply their own."
  That's probably how "White Summer" came to be credited to Jimmy Page, too.  It
was a traditional song without a copyright, so he applied his own for a false
songwriting credit.
  As with "How Many More Times," "Nobody's Fault But Mine" is recognizable as
based on a blues tune, and makes the specific one clear by using the title the
same way and featuring some slide guitar.
  The lyrics otherwise have been changed to include old expressions like:
  - "roll the log" for rolling a joint and/or a euphemism for sex,
  - "hit the gong" for smoking opium (one example: "He took her down to China-
town, And he showed her how to kick the gong around" in "Minnie the Moocher" by
Cab Calloway and Irving Mills and recorded in 1931 by Cab Calloway),
  - and "monkey on my back"--early 1900's slang for a burdensome responsibility,
usually referring to drug addiction.
  ("You Can't Put That Monkey On My Back" by Hy Heath, Billy Haley, and Al Ber-
nard and recorded in 1939 by Frankie "Half Pint" Jaxon)
  ("stooped from carrying a thirty-five-pound monkey on his back" from p.43 of
the novel "The Man with the Golden Arm," by Nelson Algren, 1949)
  ("Monkey on my Back," 1957, in which Cameron Mitchell depicts the drug addic-
tion of boxer Barney Ross)
  "I will get down rollin' tonight" could refer to rolling a joint and/or having
  Of the songs on this list, the lyrics of this song come the closest to being
candid about the Led Zep habit of sending funds to criminals for hard drugs.
(I smoked some herb around the time I graduated, but was put upon by some issues
later that made me realize first hand that the money didn't go to a benign ab-
straction.)  By this time, Jimmy had advanced to heroin, which would be stupid
enough if it were grown with hydroponics in a nearby barn and they were giving
it away for free.  Thankfully, he's since quit taking heroin, although in a
Wikipedia quote from Q magazine in 2003, "Page responded to a question as to
whether he regrets getting so involved in heroin and cocaine: 'I don't regret it
at all because when I needed to be really focused, I was really focused.  That's
it.  Both Presence and In Through the Out Door were only recorded in three
weeks: that's really going some.  You've got to be on top of it.'"
  A related heroin concern is that from the early 1970's to the late 1980's,
Jimmy lived in a house once owned by a favorite of his, the occult peddler
Aleister Crowley who was also partial to heroin of the hard drugs he took, in
Crowley's case till the end of his life.  Jimmy owned an occult book store and
publishing house that published a book of Crowley's in the early 1970's but has
since distanced himself from the occult.  (note hard drug use)
  The song is credited on "Presence" to Jimmy Page and Robert Plant.  Since the
case for it being derived from a Blind Willie Johnson tune wasn't a legal obli-
gation, his name wasn't credited.
  This actually isn't a surprising coverage of the ethics of the use of research
material to find brought up in association with concerns about the outlook about
it held by the JWs leaders.
  The case I'm seeing has nothing to do with subjective reactions to songwriting
ability otherwise ("The Rain Song" sure is purty and the bass is especially cool
in "The Lemon Song"), and you don't get royalties from flattery in interviews,
just song writing credits, as any session musician in the '60's would know.
This is concerned with strictly ethical authorship crediting, and how the effort
to seem exclusive, especially for money, can make some people cook up the facts.
  You can't copyright basics, like E A D chord changes of common lengths, or the
phrase "I love you," etc., just more specific things.  A lot of this music and
these lyrics creations are such specific recognizable things.  The talent shown
just makes glomming onto others' credits seem all the more unnecessary.
  What makes the theft of millions of dollars especially stupid is that the
members of Led Zeppelin are all very rich and popular.  This isn't a case of a
poor woman who stole a tin of tuna because she was starving.  The song credits
in question are for about fifteen songs--most of a double album's worth, includ-
ing Yardbirds examples and ones that were sort of fixed, kind of.  If the cred-
its were corrected, and that allowed to drift farther and farther into the past,
they'd still be rich, popular, and acclaimed as talented.  It's like if Oprah
Winfrey stole a car to get wherever she went like someone in a Grand Theft Auto
game, or Paul McCartney tried to run out of the grocery store with his cart
without paying whenever he went shopping--it's that kind of stupid.

  P.S. about Crowley (see "Nobody's Fault But Mine"), a white male UK-'centric
person still popular with some in the UK:
  Crowley was a good example of how a guy can try too hard to seem exclusive.
  He was another JWs leader type--a guy who never invented anything substantial
(came up with his own recipe of a stew of old mystic ideas, came up with a funny
turn of phrase now and then, if also some bad taste ways of straining to be dif-
ferent by symbolically phrasing sex or mystical things as if about murder or
pedophilia and such) but was an elitist, anyway.  So, just like a JWs leader, he
cooked up a case for it.
  Though Crowley took a lot of his specifics from outlooks outside of Christian-
ity (some of his symbolism was more book of Revulsion than Revelation), he bas-
ically reminded me of Charles Taze Russell and others of the late 1800's/early
1900's whose stance was an overdone caricature of the Protestant effort to res-
tore the original Christianity.  They were trying to be exclusive about things
which were already covered too much in the mainstream to create any distinction
for them, so Russell and others played prophet and cooked things up, including a
proportionate amount of bashing of mainstream Christianity to declare exclusive-
  Like Russell, Crowley had left Protestant Christianity as a youth, so I about
wanted to have someone to lean over to and tell "I told you so" when I read
about another dubious effort to return it to the original church:

  "For him, the main issue was the presence of an anti-christian element.  The
amazing thing about those efforts is that Thelema and the O.T.O. did not want to
substitute christianity but return it to its original condition.  Thus Crowley
wrote in 1944, entirely along Theodor Reuss' lines that it was the task of the
O.T.O. 'to restore Christianity to its real status as a solar-phallic reli-
  Like the JWs leader Rutherford, one notoriously bad way he played phony elit-
ist was with bigoted swipes against other groups of people--Crowley picked wom-
en, Jews, black people, and others.  If some in his time may have tried to ex-
cuse their use of "ni**er" as just meaning "black" and not derisive for "black,"
he showed he meant the derogatory sense by using the "n" word for blacks, Indi-
ans, and Italians--non-blacks typically only considered it as meant as offen-
  "...we [British] always somehow instinctively think of the Italian as a nig-
ger.  We don't call them 'dagos' and 'wops' as they do in the United States,
with the invariable epithet of 'dirty'; but we have the same feeling." ("Diary
of a Drug Fiend," Book I, Chap.9, 1922)
  "One cannot fraternize with the Chinese of the lower classes; one must treat
them with absolute contempt and callousness." ("Confessions," p.471, 1929, 1969)
  He advocated violence against lower class Chinese people and blood libel
against Jews.
  According to Wikipedia, he defended "antisemitic pogroms in Kishinev Russia
and elsewhere, on the grounds that the murder of thousands of Jews was a ration-
al response to the implied danger of Jewish ritual cannibalism," and that "Human
sacrifices are today still practiced by the Jews of Eastern Europe," etc.  Women
outside his cult were given as "'tolerable', he wrote, when they served the role
of solely helping a man in his life's work.  However, he said that they were in-
capable of actually understanding the work."
  He had the way of judging people by their looks, also shown by Charles Rus-
sell, that led to the eugenics favored by Joseph Rutherford and the Nazis ("GTJ
Brooklyn," pp.1a and 6):
  "One must further remark that each sign governs two main types...the active
and the passive.  Thus Aries: the high brows, long face, aquiline nose, tall
thin muscular figure, shows the fiery and martial qualities of the sign.  But
there is an evil and averse counterpart corresponding to the ovine nature.  We
have the gross, hooked, pendulous proboscis; the thick, flabby, moist lips; the
patient stupid eyes, and timid, hunted gait of the bad type of Jew." ("Confes-
sions," pp.762,763, 1929, 1969)
  It's not complicated--it's the usual 'centric view about groups the bigot
didn't see himself in except with the language a little more dressed up than
usual.  If Crowley wanted to display compelling evidence that he was the spokes-
man for messages from higher eternal wisdom from the beyond--he claimed to have
channeled a being called Aiwass--he had the wrong phone numbers because he al-
ways started dialing with the phone number of the local bad dumb bar and just
used numerology to add extensions to it.
  But something like the 'centric person who can name some exceptions among mov-
ie or sports stars of the group they demean, Crowley had exceptions for his big-
oted generalizations.  It's not much of an exception, in fact it seems to play
a bit to both sides of the issue, but during the Scottsboro trial, he boasted
that he danced with whores of all colors.  He didn't comment on the important
issue of the trial of racism.  The author suggests that Crowley seemed to hold
racist views yet a fascination for prople of color.
  ("Do What Thou Wilt: A Life of Aleister Crowley," Lawrence Sutin, p.366)
  Some Crowley fans have alleged that there's an exception to Crowley's bigotry
Crowley's book "Magic in Theory and Practice":
  "However, there is no doubt that an assemblage of persons who really are in
harmony can much more easily produce an effect than a magician working by him-
self.  The psychology of 'Revival meetings' will be familiar to almost every
one, and though such meetings are the foulest and most degraded rituals of black
magic, the laws of Magick are not thereby suspended. The laws of Magick are the
laws of Nature.
  "A singular and world-famous example of this is of sufficiently recent date to
be fresh in the memory of many people now living.  At a nigger camp meeting in
the 'United' States of America, devotees were worked up to such a pitch of ex-
citement that the whole assembly developed a furious form of hysteria."
  The Crowley passage is used by Mary Desti, Leila Wassell, and Hymenaeus Beta
on p.191, chap.4, of "Magick: Liber ABA," 1999, adding the phrase "these pseudo-
human brutes--many of them scarcely superior to their 'white' neighbors" after
  If the added phrase is actually by Crowley, it's not an exception to his rac-
ial bigotry.  It just shows he bashed Christians of any color as less human than
  Most notably, he considered followers of himself a special exception (like a
JWs leader would) that rose above the usual case.  As it says in Wikipedia, his
stance was that "his own preferred 'master class' was above all distinctions of
race."  This was always such a tiny group that Crowley could generalize away
condescendingly about whole groups of people otherwise.  If he ever thought bet-
ter of it, he still used it for pandering to bring in the bigots.
  He must have run into people who called him on having been stupid.  But one
excuse attempted for this dubious bid for exclusiveness is based on the fact
that he'd worked in the USA for British Intelligence during WWI encouraging
German militancy to spur the US to enter the war--Crowley handled that by en-
couraging the sinking of The Lusitania (like Sept.11 except think passenger lin-
er instead of skyscrapers), studying the effects of peyote by slipping it into
people's food without telling them, etc.  The attempted excuse is that he'd
been working secretly for the British government during WWII to show such Nazi
bigotry that he'd undermine its credibility.
  To get the feel of the lameness of the excuse, imagine being the bigot who
tried it sometime: "I'm not a bigot--I was hired by the government like James
Bond to act like one secretly--Churchill wanted to decide things with some tarot
card readings"....
  But there's no evidence he was given the job (gee, I wonder why?), only that
he aspired to it.  (The previous example of his outlook on southern US bigots
indicates he probably had the stance that the Nazi reasons weren't as good as
his.)  And he hadn't written as if a script writer for Archie Bunker to show
bigotry was stupid, it was written like Archie wrote it himself and over a
broader range of years than those for WWII.  As the horrors of the Nazis became
well known, WWII-era quotes like "Before Hitler was, I am" (an alteration of
John 8:58) led to his dwindling popularity.
  ("Do What Thou Wilt: A Life of Aleister Crowley," Lawrence Sutin, p.249, 2000),M1,9171,934216,00.html
  What a yutz.  Along with encouraging the deaths of innocent Lusitania passeng-
ers and long term hard drug use, he stands as a symbol through the generations
of a guy who didn't know how to party right.  (Partier: "I got the keg and the
women are on their way."  Crowley: "I'll get the pedophilia poems and the heroin
and get rid of the ni**ers."  Partier: "Crowley, get the f*** out of here, will
you please?")


  "Look--a bunny!"